One of the adverse effects of nutritional deficiency in adolescent girls was cognitive function disorders which tend to decrease their learning process. Therefore, this study analyzed the relationship between anemia, nutrition, socioeconomic status, and cognitive abilities in boarding school adolescent girls. This was a cross-sectional study with the purposive sampling method used to collect data from 110 girls aged 15-18 years from February to March 2022. The inclusion criteria were the respondents who were not menstruating at the measurement time in accordance with the entire studies series. The Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) measured cognitive abilities. The Hemocue tool measured incidence of anemia based on hemoglobin levels. Data on nutritional status and socioeconomic were determined by BMI/U indicators, while socioeconomic data collected from education level, parents' employment and income were collected through questionnaires filled out directly by the respondents. The data analyzed using the Chi-Square and the Multiple Logistics Regression tests. The results showed that the average age of adolescent girls was 16 years old (47.3%) while the variables of anemia, mothers’ education, occupation, and parents' income significantly related to cognitive abilities at a significance of p<0.05. Meanwhile, the variables of nutritional status, fathers’ education, and occupation were insignificantly related to cognitive abilities (p>0.05). The Multiple Logistics Regression results showed that anemia is the most influential factor in adolescent girls' cognitive abilities in boarding schools at Gowa Regency. The incidence of anemia is the most influential variable on the cognitive abilities of adolescent girls at Boarding School, Gowa Regency.