Doctors are not protected from the occurrence and consequences of mental illnesses, doctors (especially board trainees) face particular challenges such as high patients’ attendance, long duty hours, potentially violent situations, and critical decision-making that place them at more risk of anxiety, depression and other stress related psychosocial problem. The current study aimed to identify the prevalence of mental health problem and depressive syndrome among Iraqi and Arab board trainees in Medical City Teaching Center. A cross sectional study was carried out from 1/1/2022 to 1/4/2022 at the Medical City Teaching Campus using a questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, Self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20) to detect the presence of mental illness and screened for depression by a standardized scale; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version IV (DSM-IV). Among the 535 participants 500 complete and returned the questionnaire with response rate of 93.4%. The prevalence of mental illness was 71.2%, it was more among males 55.9%, single 77.8%, had (≥4 children) 72.7% and trainees of surgical branches 78%. The associations were significant with branch of trainees. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 15.4%. Higher rates were among males 63.6%, single trainees 35.3%, with children 12% and working in surgical branches 13.7% The associations were significant with branch of trainees. The current study revealed that mental illness is prevalent among board trainees. Male gender, single, having children and working in the surgical specialty were associated with higher rates of both mental illness and depression.