Chronic pain is felt in the body and in the mind. S. Freud, J. Lacan, neurophysiologists, and societies for the study of pain have each explained it to us independently with little success when facing the complexity of this condition by patients and health personnel who care for them, but there are these theories, and you must begin to take them all into account to understand pain in its entirety. This review aims to describe the concept of chronic pain in a simple way and as an appetizer through, on the one hand, psychoanalytic theory and, on the other, neuroscience. In no way is it intended to equate psychoanalytic knowledge with neurobiological knowledge since their sources and scientific method are different. If similarities are found between both ways of understanding chronic pain, they should be understood as the author's opinions or the reader's deductions. What is desired here is to sow curiosity about the subject and in the future if it is possible to integrate the two ways of understanding long-term pain. For this narrative review, a manual and automated literature search was carried out in biomedical databases, disciplines related to neuroscience, psychoanalysis, and mental health, using search terms according to Medical Subject Headings. Textbooks on the topics and representative authors of psychoanalytic theory and neuroscience were also consulted. Although there are psychoanalytic and neurobiological approaches in the study of chronic pain, they all understand it independently, and their integration has not been achieved so far. However, we can get to know the bases of each aspect to venture into this company in the future. There is a need to increase research on chronic pain conditions, which correlates neurobiological and psychoanalytic aspects that contribute to achieving a multidimensional and effective treatment. It is especially urgent to find a way to "measure" psychoanalytic concepts to confirm them in the light of current scientific method.