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Abstract :

Vitamin D is a steroid hormone regulating calcium-phosphorus homeostasis, immune response and brain function. In the past thirty years, an increasing number of cohort studies, metaanalyses and randomized controlled trials (RTCs) evaluated the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], which is considered the Vitamin D status biomarker, in patients affected by neurological, psychiatric and autoimmune diseases. Although an association between low 25(OH)D serum levels and the prevalence of these diseases has been found, it is still unclear whether the serum 25(OH)D measurement can be clinically useful as a biomarker for diagnosis, prognosis and predicting treatment response in neurodegeneration, mental illness and immune-mediated disorders. The lack of standardized data, as well as discrepancies among the studies (in the analytical methods, cut-offs, endpoints and study sets), weakened the findings achieved, hindered pooling data, and, consequently, hampered drawing conclusions. This narrative review summarizes the main findings from the studies performed on serum 25(OH)D in neurological, psychiatric and autoimmune diseases, and clarifies whether or not serum 25(OH)D can be used as a reliable biomarker in these diseases.