Neonatal mortality has been reported as a major societal health menace across the globe. Hence, this study, which adopted a hospital-based cross-sectional type of experimental research design, aimed at examining the clinical indication of some selected cardiopulmonary and anthropometric indices as key predictive clinical biomarkers for neonatal survival. The subjects were divided into three groups; experimental Group 1 consisted of 80 pre-term neonates within 28 weeks; experimental Group 2 consisted of 80 pre-term neonates within 33 weeks; and the control group, which consisted of 80 apparently healthy, term neonates. For each subject selected, cardio-pulmonary parameters and anthropometric variables were obtained daily and compared. ANOVA, correlation coefficients, and linear regression were used to compare statistical measures. A discrimination accuracy test of previous records using cut points available from previous models was conducted for ease of estimating the possibility of neonatal survival from assayed variables. Following data collection, sorting, and analysis, the study found a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in average systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of preterm neonates when compared with term neonates. This, however, was the reverse for DBP, which was proved to have increased in preterm neonates compared to term neonates. The study also observed a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in RR and OSL levels of preterm neonates compared to term neonates. In conclusion, cardiopulmonary and anthropometric status could be useful predictive biomarkers in clinical trials to provide insight into the extent of compromise in newborn health. This will help to minimize the death of neonates by ensuring a better treatment protocol/regimen is given. A corroborative study with an event-driven approach that assays more molecular or other non-physiological variables is recommended.