Eating disorders (EDs) are associated with a significant risk of comorbid psychiatric conditions and medical complications along with high mortality rate and suicide risk. This study aimed to assess psychiatry residents’ knowledge and attitudes toward eating disorders. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among psychiatric residents in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed electronically to psychiatric residents through the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties database. The questionnaire collected demographic information (e.g., age, sex, and nationality), previous experience with eating disorders, and assessment of knowledge of and attitudes toward eating disorders. Fifty-two psychiatric residents (65.4% men, 34.6% women) were included in this study. Most participants (65.4%) belonged to the 20–30-year age group, and 46.2% of all participants were service residents. Knowledge of eating disorders was poor among 63.5% of residents and good among 36.5% of residents. There was a positive attitude toward eating disorders among 76.9% of residents, while 21.3% showed a negative attitude. The younger age group (age <35 years) showed significantly better knowledge, Saudi nationals, training residents, and those with ≤4 years in psychiatric practice; however, there was no difference in their attitudes. While psychiatric residents had an optimistic attitude toward eating disorders, they lacked knowledge of eating disorders. Among all participants, young Saudi trainee residents who were at an early stage of their career had better knowledge than those in the other groups.