To assess the nutritional knowledge and practice of mothers towards under two years old children who attending primary health care centers in Al-Diwaniyah Governorate. This is a cross-sectional analytical study, in order to evaluate the nutritional knowledge and practice of mothers towards under two years old children, the study population was infants under-two years with their mothers who attending vaccination sessions in six PHCC centers in Al-Diwaniyah governorate. At the end of study, we were able to include 122 cases. The study started on July the15th 2022 and ended at November the 15th 2022. Classification of participants according to type of feeding is shown that Exclusive breast feeding was reported in 24 (20 %), exclusive bottle feeding was reported in 71 (58 %) and mixed feeding was seen in 27 (22 %). Sociodemographic characteristics of women enrolled in the current study are shown that Comparison of mean age revealed no significant difference with respect to type of feeding (p = 0.829). There was significant association between type of feeding and occupation of mother (p = 0.012). There was no significant association between type of feeding and level of education, economic status, residence, number of children, birth weight, gestational age and gender of the baby (p > 0.05). In association between response of mothers to child feeding practice questions and type of feeding There was no significant association with response to “Is colostrum important” (p = 0.331). There was significant association with response to “Introduction of colostrum at first week of baby life”, “Breast milk is healthier than formula”, “Breast feeding has contraceptive benefits” Breast milk ensures proper growth and development in the first 4-6 months without adding bottle milk, water or sugar” (p <0.001). With respect to source of information about the benefits of breast feeding, there was no significant association between any source and type of feeding (p > 0.05). There was no significant association with response to “Using of vit D drops for the baby”, “Maneuver of sterilization of milk bottles”, occurrence of diarrhea or chest infection, and “Time of weaning of the baby from milk feeding” (p > 0.05); but there was significant association with “Cause of didn’t start a breast feeding or didn’t continue an exclusive breast feeding”, “Any admission of the baby to hospital before” and “hospital admission” (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between time of complementary feeding introduction and type of milk feeding and most of them starting complementary feeding at 4-6 months (p = 0.773). There was also no significant association between type of feeding and the response to all questions pertaining to the response to complementary feeding practice questions (p > 0.05). There was no significant association between baby weight, baby height, signs of anemia or growth chart (p > 0.05). There was significant association between signs of iron deficiency anemia and “No” minimum acceptable diet (p < 0.001). There was also significant association between signs of iron deficiency anemia and time of meat introduction (p = 0.028), in such a way that no meat introduction is associated with more incidence of IDA.