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20 Aug 2022
31 Aug 2022
Azerbaijan medical journal (ISSN: 0005-2523) - is a scopus indexed journal since 1961. The publisher of the journal is Izdatel'stvo Elm by WHO Office in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan medical journal (AMJ) is also UGC approved. The journal publishes general medicine, health science, psychological, pharmaceutical journals and so on.
Aim and Scope
Azerbaijan Medical Journal
Azerbaijan Medical Journal (ISSN: 0005-2523) - is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal seeks to publish original research articles that are hypothetical and theoretical in its nature and that provide exploratory insights in the following fields but not limited to.
Azerbaijan Medical Journal
Regular blood transfusion and iron chelation is the primary treatment of thalassemia patientsto maintain their life. Iron chelatormay alter serum total calcium and magnesium level in TDT patients. To evaluateany alteration of serum total calcium and magnesium level in transfusion dependent thalassemia patients treated with iron chelator. The present cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Physiology, BSMMU, Dhaka between September 2017 to February 2019. Thirty cases of TDT, aged 5-40 year were included in the study group. Age and sex matched 30 healthy subjects were also studied as control. All the TDT patients were selected from the outpatient Department of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, BSMMU, Dhaka. Serum total calcium, magnesium and ferritin levels were measured by colorimetric method. For statistical analysis independent sample t test and Chi-Square test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used. The mean serum total calcium and magnesium levels were significantly (p<0.05) lower and serum ferritin level was significantly (p<0.001) higher in study group compared to that of control. Again, in this study group 6.7 % TDT patients had hypocalcemia and 13.3% TDT patients had hypomagnecemia. This study may conclude that low serum total calcium and magnesium level may be associated with TDT patients treated by combined deferoxamine (DFO) & deferiprone (DFP) iron chelator.
Autoimmune diseases (AiDs) are characterized by the destruction of host tissues by the host immune system. The etiology of AiDs is complex, with the implication of multiple genetic defects and various environmental factors (pathogens, antibiotic use, pollutants, stress, and diet). The interaction between these two compartments results in the rupture of tolerance against self-antigens and the unwanted activation of the immune system. Thanks to animal models, the immunopathology of many AiDs is well described, with the implication of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. This progress toward the understanding of AiDs led to several therapies tested in patients. However, the results from these clinical trials have not been satisfactory, from reversing the course of AiDs to preventing them. The need for a cure has prompted many investigators to explore alternative aspects in the immunopathology of these diseases. Among these new aspects, the role of antimicrobial host defense peptides (AMPs) is growing. Indeed, beyond their antimicrobial activity, AMPs are potent immunomodulatory molecules and consequently are implicated in the development of numerous AiDs. Importantly, according to the disease considered, AMPs appear to play a dual role in autoimmunity with either anti- or pro-inflammatory abilities. Here, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the role of AMPs in the development of AiDs and attempt to provide some hypotheses explaining their dual role. Definitely, a complete understanding of this aspect is mandatory before the design of AMP-based therapies against AiDs.
Childhood nephrotic syndrome is a challenging and often persistent renal disorder, and its incidence varies between different ethnicities and regions. Corticosteroids have been the main treatment for decades and are effective in most children with idiopathic NS, although 10–15% of these children become steroid resistant. Furthermore, some initially steroid sensitive children follow a steroid dependent or frequently relapsing course and are therefore at increased risk for developing steroid toxicity. In such children, alternative immunosuppressive medications are used to induce and/or maintain remission of NS. One such drug, rituximab, is a monoclonal antibody directed against the B lymphocyte CD20 marker which induces depletion of B cells, and has shown promising results in the management of NS in children. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the efficacy and safety of rituximab in the different types of childhood nephrotic syndrome, the known and potential mechanisms of action of rituximab, its possible complications and side effects, and the available and potential biomarkers of rituximab activity.
Recent studies demonstrated that current European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society spirometric reference equations, used in general population, may not be applicable in population of elite athletes. Althought it is well known that physical activity may affect lung volumes, the effect of sporting activity on pulmonary function testing indices was never examined. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in functional respiratory parameters in various types of sports by measuring lung volumes and to extend the existing factors as well as sport disciplines which affect respiratory function the most. A total of 1639 elite male athletes, aged 18-35 years were divided in 4 groups according to the predominant characteristics of training: skill, power, mixed and endurance athletes. They performed basic anthropometric measurements and spirometry. Groups were compared, and Pearson’s simple correlation was performed to test the relation between anthropometric and spirometric characteristics of athletes. All anthropometric characteristics significantly differed among groups and correlate with respiratory parameters. The highest correlation was found for body height and weight. Sports participation is associated with respiratory adaptation, and the extent of adaptation depends on type of activity. Endurance sports athletes have higher lung volumes in comparison with skill, mixed and power group of sport.
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma, as it accounts for almost 90% of all endocrine malignancies. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is about 1-3 cases in every 100,000 populations. During the last 30 years, the rate of thyroid cancer incidence has increased worldwide. The aim of this work was to determine the frequency of thyroid carcinoma in multinodular goiter in patients undergoing thyroidectomy to make a strategy to perform total thyroidectomy (TT) as a rule of treatment. This retrospective study included the medical charts and surgical data of a total of 50 patients who underwent surgery for goiter at General Surgery Department, Aswan University Hospital between 2015 and 2018. The present study showed that the frequency of papillary carcinoma was 6% of all thyroid diseases (from 50 patients), 60% of incidental thyroid carcinoma as the frequency was high in the 4th decade of life. The present study showed that the frequency of follicular carcinoma was 2% of all thyroid diseases (one case), 20% of ITC. Patient was in the 4th decade. The present study showed that the frequency of undifferentiated thyroid cancer was 2% of all thyroid diseases. It could be concluded that, according to the finding of this study, total thyroidectomy is the preferred method in benign thyroid disease for which surgery is indicated. The advantages of TT include reduction of recurrence rate, achieves a permanent cure of thyroid disorders.
Hemorrhoids are common human afflictions known since the dawn of history. More than half of patients with hemorrhoids are complicated by acute thrombosis of hemorrhoids. It is unknown whether surgery is the gold standard for therapy of thrombosed. In article were described the results of surgical treatment 99 patients with acute hemorrhoidal thrombosis. All patients underwent hemorrhoidectomy during some days after hospitalization. Complications were observed at 28 patients (28,3%), from which in early postoperative period were 25, late complications were at 3 patients. The frequency of early and late postoperative complications is similar to those after elective hemorrhoidectomy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTI) in boys with hypospadias pre- peri- and post-operatively in order to determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis for UTI is warranted when they undergo a reconstructive surgery for hypospadias. Included in the study group were 174boys undergoing reconstructions for hypospadias. The control group comprised 204 boys operated on for an inguinal hernia. The main outcome measure was the documented finding of a urinary tract infection verified by a positive bacteria culture. The results revealed a significant difference in the findings of a positive urinary culture between the boys undergoing hypospadias surgery, 7.5%, and those operated on for an inguinal hernia, 1.5%, (p=0.0044). The difference between the groups was not significant in the preand peri-operative periods. A higher incidence of infections was noted in boys who had other congenital malformations in addition to hypospadias (P=0.02). Thus, the boys with hypospadias are more likely to incur a urinary tract infection. Since the results did not show a higher incidence of symptomatic urinary tract infections shortly after the surgery, it may not be advantageous to administer prophylactic antibiotics to decrease the number of urinary tract infections. However, comparison of subgroups consisting of the hypospadias without and with prophylactic antibiotics remains to be conducted.
Study of the effect of eradication therapy of H. pylori infection on the status of colonic microbiocenosis in patients with duodenal ulcer
This review is a comprehensive summary of different variants of anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy from past strategies to the current state of the art. Nowadays we see a progressive decreasing of eradication rate in many countries in case of use standard triple therapy. It can be associated with high clarithromycin resistance of Helicobacter pylori. Gradual increase in number of the used antibiotics, the increase in duration of treatment, use of new antibacterial compounds and schemes of treatment do not lead to a long-term positive effect on eradication rate and on preservation of risk of development of side reactions. It is necessary to pay active attention to new approaches to treatment and alternative options of therapy of an Helicobacter pylori infection. One of the most perspective methods of improving the efficacy of eradication can be the usage of probiotics, especially in addition to standard therapy. Probiotics have some mechanisms to influence on Helicobacter pylori: lactic acid production, synthesis of bacteriocins and antimicrobial metabolites, concurrence for adhesion sites, the reparation of the barrier function of the stomach mucosa, a decrease of inflammation and increase of immunity of infected humans. Bismuth subcitrate is very effective in eradication, cytoprotection, and atrophic changes regression and can be recommended for eradication schemes as classic quadrotherapy also as a 4th additional component in classic triple therapy.
Nephropathy is considered a foremost cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia causes renal injury directly or via hemodynamic alterations. These alterations induce glomerular hyperfiltration, microalbuminuria, mesangial expansion, and GBM thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis. Risk determination has potential importance in the management of Diabetic Neuropathy advancement. In addition to the traditional approaches through albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate for the prediction and monitoring of the rate of damage among diabetic patients, various studies are enduring to identify biomarkers. Recent approaches to treat this disorder emphasize on increased control of glycemia and blood pressure using therapies based on renin-angiotensinaldosterone system blockade. Renal and pancreatic transplantation is considered the best modality. This review of literature focuses on pathogenic factors, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of diabetic nephropathy.
Comparison of results DEXA and Ultrasonography of densitometry at patients in different groups. Comparative analysis x-ray densitometry of spine and ultrasound densitometry of the calcaneus were provided in 2 different clinical groups: postmenopausal osteoporosis(n=26), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=66). T-scores correlated poorly between the methods. No correlation was found between the results of ultrasound and X-ray densitometry in any of the examined groups of patients. It was determine that in postmenopausal women and in patients with diabetes mellitus should be determined bone density by X-ray densitometry. Ultrasound examination of the calcaneus in these groups of patients is uninformative. The most pronounced changes in postmenopausal osteoporosis are found in the vertebrae, but in senile osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus at the femoral neck. The ultrasound diagnostic method often determines the category of less severe violations than the X-ray densitometry of the axial skeleton. Only in senile osteoporosis determining hardness of the calcaneus can be used for screening the state of the skeleton.