Mortality and complications after coronary artery bypass grafting depending on preoperative comorbidity | AMJ

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[This article belongs to Volume - 60, Issue - 02]

Abstract :

In-hospital mortality after emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains an important issue that has needed considerable attention in recent years as the mortality rate is still high and prevention factors are not yet optimal. Our study presents the first largest cohort of emergency CABG from one large institution in Vietnam with the primary aim of comparing a large variety of pre-, intra-and postoperative parameters between in-hospital mortality patients and in-hospital survival patients and investigate risk factors of in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing emergency CABG. We conducted a retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data in patients undergoing emergency CABG at the Hanoi Heart Hospital (Hanoi, Vietnam) from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2019. Primary outcome variable was in-hospital mortality. A total of 71 patients were included in final analysis. The mean age of the cohort was 68.68 years (± 9.28, range 38–86). The mean weight, height and body mass index were 54.35 kg (± 9.17, range 37–77), 158.96 (±7.64, range 145–179) and 21.48 kg/m2 (±3.08, range 13.59–30.08), respectively. In-hospital mortality rate was 9.86%. Preoperative risk factors for in-hospital mortality included diabetes, decreased ejection fraction (EF), EF below 30%, cardiogenic shock, elevated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), elevated NT-ProBNP, and Euroscore II. Without grafting with left internal thoracic artery, and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time were increased intraoperative factors for inhospital mortality risk. In-hospital mortality’s postoperative risk factors were found to be postextubation respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, ventricular fibrillation, dialysis-requiring acute renal failure, pneumonia, bacterial sepsis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and prolonged mechanical ventilation time. Significant predictors determining in-hospital mortality were known as prolonged CPB time in surgery and postoperative ventricular fibrillation. Our hospital mortality rate after emergency CABG was relatively high. An optimal preventive strategy in emergency CABG management should target significant factors combined with other previously identified risk factors to reduce in-hospital mortality.