Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has a tendency to increase as the number of tuberculosis cases (TB) increases with the prevalence of 1.8% of TB cases in Indonesia that currently is second ranks highest of TB cases in the world. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, income, social capital, health belief model, quality care, adherence and history of previous TB treatment factors on MDR-TB. This was an analytic observational study with a case-control design from August to December 2017. A total of 309 study subjects including 81 respondents with MDR-TB (case) and 228 volunteers without MDR-TB (control). MDR-TB data was collected by medical record with moleculer examination confirmation (GenExper). The data were analyzed by path analysis model. The risk of MDR-TB increased with history of previous TB treatment >2 (b=2.58; 95% CI= 1.55 to 3.61; p-value <0.001). The risk of MDR-TB decreased with adherence (b=-4.99; 95% CI= -6.53 to -3.44; p-value <0.001), and high montly income (b=-0.91; 95% CI= -1.72 to 0.09; p-value 0.028). The social capital increased with cues to action >6 (b=6.04; 95% CI= 4.03 to 8.04; p-value <0.001). The cues to action increased with adherence >3 (b=3.34; 95% CI= 1.24 to 5.44; p-value 0.002). The knowledge increased with perceived quality care (b=3.00; 95% CI= 2.38 to 3.61; p-value <0.001). The quality of care perceived increased with adherence >2 (b=2.01; 95% CI= 1.29 to 2.72; p-value <0.001). The self efficacy increased with adherence >1 (b=1.14; 95% CI= 0.35 to 1.93; p-value 0.004).