End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a permanent deterioration of kidney functions and a life-threatening condition without dialysis or transplantation. Diabetes mellitus may result in diabetic nephropathy, the main cause of ESRD. We aim to delineate the ability of vitamin D (VitD), Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin (IL)-10 in diagnosing ESRD patients and examine their impacts on insulin resistance. We employed 90 participants distributed as healthy control (n=33) and ESRD patients (n= 57). We measured serum levels of IL-10, GM-CSF, VitD, albumin, insulin, glucose, creatinine, blood urea, phosphate ion, and uric acid. We found significant differences between ESRD patients and healthy control in serum levels of VitD, IL-10 and GM-CSF. There are significant correlations between kidney biomarkers (creatinine, blood urea and phosphate ion) and VitD and IL-10 but no significant correlation with GM-CSF. VitD was significantly correlated with IL-10 and GM-CSF. Receiver operating curve (ROC) curve and AUC analysis showed that VitD (sensitivity = 81.8 %, specificity = 79.9%, concentration=9.239 ng/ml), IL-10 (sensitivity = 75.4 %, specificity = 75.8%, concentration=7.419 pg/ml) and GM-CSF (sensitivity = 66.7 %, specificity = 64.6%, concentration=121.011 pg/ml) were significant diagnostic biomarkers in ESRD patients. ESRD is accompanied by increased inflammatory markers, namely IL-10 and GM-CSF, along with decreased VitD. Altered levels of the latter biomarkers could be a diagnostic tool for ESRD.